For students like Aisha the acceptance of a meritocratic discourse makes it hard to recognise the structural inequalities that they are battling against. Aisha does however recognise competition for graduate jobs, and knows that she will need an edge to enter that market:. One I like getting up to in the morning. As Aisha talks about her ambitions to move into a graduate career, the emphasis on her reliance on her own initiative and motivation are apparent.
The neoliberal values of effort, responsibility and being accountable for her own success have been tacitly accepted. The lack of choice about which university to attend or the need to juggle her identity as a mother with that of being a student is simply accepted.
Did going to college change your social class?
The stakes for Aisha achieving a graduate career are high. Like many working class female students, she focuses on the financial stability that her education will bring to her family in the longer term:. The benefit will not only be to herself through the possibility of a fulfilling career, but also to her young family by not having to struggle financially. References:  Abrahams, J. She began her career as a primary school teacher. Save my name, e-mail, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Notify me of follow-up comments by email.
Notify me of new posts by email. The opinions expressed in the items published here are those of the authors and not Discover Society. D iscover Society Measured — Factual — Critical.
Sam Shields There are differential patterns of access to higher education for men and women. Aisha encapsulates the tenacity and determination that is often required for women in this demographic category to be eligible for a university place: I started my A Levels 5 weeks after Ahmed [her son] was born. But working-class women often need to mobilise a particularly high level of commitment to succeed: University work is done when the kids are in bed asleep.
Psychological defensiveness as a mechanism explaining the relationship between low socioeconomic status and religiosity. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion , 22 , — People both high and low on religious fundamentalism are prejudiced toward dissimilar groups.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 1 , 76— Subjective status shapes political preferences. Psychological Science , 26 , 15— Is higher inequality less legitimate? Depends on how you frame it! British Journal of Social Psychology , 56 , — Understanding society: Design overview. Longitudinal and Life Course Studies , 3 , 5— On the relation between social class and prejudice: The roles of education, income, and ideological attitudes.
European Journal of Social Psychology , 43 , — Widening participation in higher education: Analysis using linked administrative data. Public attitudes to poverty and welfare, — Analysis using British attitudes data. Objective and subjective socioeconomic status and susceptibility to the common cold. Health Psychology , 27 , — How social class shapes thoughts and actions in organizations.
The psychology of social class: How socioeconomic status impacts thought, feelings, and behaviour
Research in Organizational Behavior , 31 , 43— Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , , — British Journal of Social Psychology , 57 , — Building a more mobile America — One income quintile at a time. Perspectives on Psychological Science , 10 , 60— Citizenship survey. Social class, power, and selfishness: When and why upper and lower class individuals behave unethically.
Unpublished manuscript, University of Sussex. How has inequality changed? What do Americans know about inequality? It depends on how you ask them.
Higher education and growing inequality
Judgment and Decision Making , 7 , — Social class: Identity, awareness and political attitudes: Why are we still working class? British Social Attitudes , 33 , 1— A theory of cognitive dissonance. How unequal is the United States? Child Development. Advance online publication. Affluence and the British class structure.
4840.ru/components/iphone-7/rubi-iphone-sms-sound.php Sociological Review , 11 , — Research Papers in Education , 16 , 69— International comparisons of social mobility. When is individual mobility costly?
- Social mobility requires far more than a good education.
- Citations per year!
- Book review / Higher education, social class and social mobility: The degree generation.
- Thirteen Economic Facts about Social Mobility and the Role of Education.
The role of economic and social identity factors. European Journal of Social Psychology , 38 , — Journal of Social Issues , 73 , 61— Social inequality and the reduction of ideological dissonance on behalf of the system: Evidence of enhanced system justification among the disadvantaged. European Journal of Social Psychology , 33 , 13— How much more should CEOs make? A universal desire for more equal pay. Perspectives on Psychological Science , 9 , — A large scale test of the effect of social class on prosocial behavior. Social class and prosocial behavior: The moderating role of public versus private contexts.
Social Psychological and Personality Science , 7 , — Social class, contextualism, and empathic accuracy. Psychological Science , 21 , — Psychological Science , 20 , 99— Signs of social class: The experience of economic inequality in everyday life. Perspectives on Psychological Science , 12 , — Social class, the sense of control, and social explanation.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 97 , — Social class as culture: The convergence of resources and rank in the social realm.
Current Directions in Psychological Science , 20 , — Social class, solipsism, and contextualism: How the rich are different from the poor. Psychological Review , , — Americans overestimate social class mobility. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology , 58 , — Education and lower prejudice towards immigrants and ethnic minorities: A question of increased enlightenment or reduced economic threat? Unpublished manuscript, University of Groningen.
Sociology , 43 , — Sociology of Education , 87 1 , 1— American Sociological Review , 24 , — Accounting for unequal access to higher education: The role of social identity factors. Building a better America — One wealth quintile at a time. Perspectives on Psychological Science , 6 , 9— Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy , 14 , — Wealth in Great Britain Wave 4: to Having less, giving more: The influence of social class on prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 99 , — Higher social class predicts increased unethical behavior.
- UWE Bristol Research Repository.
- Direction of Time.
- Rat Run!
- Higher Education, Social Class and Social Mobility.
Inequality in the long run. Science , , — British Educational Research Journal , 36 1 , — Hiring as cultural matching: The case of elite professional service firms. American Sociological Review , 77 , — A new model of social class? Sociology , 47 , — Psychological Science , 11 , — Social dominance: An intergroup theory of social hierarchies and oppression. State of the nation Social mobility in Great Britain. Social Issues and Policy Review , 9 1 , 1— Social class culture cycles: How three gateway contexts shape selves and fuel inequality. Annual Review of Psychology , 65 , — Why do people stigmatise the poor at a time of rapidly increasing inequality, and what can be done about it?
The Political Quarterly , 84 1 , 31— Inequality and class prejudice in an age of austerity. Development of prosocial, individualistic, and competitive orientations: Theory and preliminary evidence. There are, however, clues in the movements of education in general that allow us to consider what this future world of work might look like. The biggest challenge to the apprenticeship possibly replacing the bachelor's degree will be public perception of it as associated with manual labour, or as a compromise for those without the qualifications to go to university.
In fact, higher apprenticeships which lead to degree-level qualifications seek to provide training that is equally if not more valuable than a bachelor's degree, in sectors far beyond the manual. WhiteHat is one organisation dedicated to busting myths surrounding apprenticeships and to 'democratising access to the best careers'.
They are essentially a training provider, but have an envigorated and modern approach to matching young people with the best career opportunities including coaching and content-based learning. WhiteHat currently only operates in London and is still a start-up, but with a move away from bachelor's degrees we could see organisations like this growing and in high demand. Certainly, a renewed financial incentive has lead institutions to push their recruitment strategies to extremes. It's also true that people from low-income backgrounds are applying more than ever before.